Charles Spearmen: Two-Factory Theory of Intelligence

Charles Spearmen Two – Factor Theory of Intelligence:  General Intelligence Factor “g”, Specific Intelligence Factor  “s”

Charles Spearmen posits all aspects of human intelligence are controlled by general intelligence, or “g” (“University Of Michigan Department Of Psychology”, 2005).  He also noted that all aspects of human intelligence are correlate with each other, to an extent (Kane & Brand, 2003).  He believed that intelligence tests only measure two aspects of intelligence – general intelligence and a specific factor (Kane & Brand, 2003).       The general intelligence factor is common to all tests whereas the specific factor is distinctive to each test (Kane & Brand, 2003).  Spearman believed the “g” factor to be the mental energy which was the leader of intelligence and was nominal to cognition (Kane & Brand, 2003).  Spearman conceived the “g” factor to consist of three processes that enhance and explain intelligence (Kane & Brand, 2003).  Experience enhances complex problem solving skills (Kane & Brand, 2003).  Education allows for relationships to be made among stimuli (Kane & Brand, 2003).  Education of correlates allows similarity identity among stimuli (Kane & Brand, 2003).  Therefore, the general factor in intelligence testing reveals an individual’s cognitive functioning in the area being assessed (Kane & Brand, 2003).  Additionally, there is a unique factor specific to each test (“University Of Michigan Department Of Psychology”, 2005).  Spearman posited the combination of both factors ultimately measured the value of human intelligence (“University Of Michigan Department Of Psychology”, 2005).    Through the use of method analysis, Spearman compared intelligence measures across a range of factors.  He then isolated the factors that correlated with other factors and found all variables were linked in some way.  The linkage among all attributed factors meant that a single intelligence factor attributed to all factors (“University Of Michigan Department Of Psychology”, 2005).  Any variances could be attributed to the specific factor the test dealt with (“University Of Michigan Department Of Psychology”, 2005).

Kane, H., & Brand, C. (2003, Spring). THE IMPORTANCE OF SPEARMAN’S g AS A PSYCHOMETRIC, SOCIAL, AND EDUCATIONAL CONSTRUCT. The Occidental Quarterly, 3(1), . Retrieved from http://toqonline.com/archives/v3n1/TOQv3n1Kane-Brand.pdf

University of Michigan Department of Psychology. (2005). Retrieved from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.loh/charlesspearmen


Attitude Survey: Substance Abuse

Substance abuse has become prevalent among communities today.  Many assume that substance abuse or addiction is due to the lack of willpower and that the addiction could negate itself at any time chosen by the individual.  However, drug abuse alters the way the brain fosters compulsive use making quitting difficult (“National Institute On Drug Abuse: The Science Of Drug Abuse & Addiction”, November 2012).   As communities are culturally diverse, so is the attitude towards substance abuse and addiction (“National Institute On Drug Abuse: The Science Of Drug Abuse & Addiction”, November 2012).  An attitude survey can aid in gaining awareness of how society perceives substance abuse and addiction.

Attitude Survey

An attitude towards something is related to the concept of self-image and social acceptance (McLeod, 2009).  To maintain a positive self-image, an individual may not profess their true attitude towards something because it may not be in compliance with the social viewpoint (McLeod, 2009).  Therefore several methods of measuring attitudes have been developed (McLeod, 2009).  A survey can measure attitude through a direct method such as the Likert scale that utilizes bipolar adjectives to understand respective opinions about a certain topic (McLeod, 2009). Another direct method is through semantic differential that assesses the attitude, potency, and activity of the topic (McLeod, 2009).  A semantic differential assesses if the individual attitudes are consistent with behavior (McLeod, 2009).  Since the majority of society seeks out social acceptance, social desirability is the greatest drawback of direct methods of measuring attitude as individuals may not reflect true feelings on the survey (McLeod, 2009).  Substance abuse and addiction are not socially desired attributes. Therefore, individuals may curve their responses to socially accepted views.

Steps to Creating Survey

The purpose of the survey is to assess the amount of awareness the community has about drug abuse and addiction.  The survey targets society as a whole within the United States and will administration will take place through an online database.  The initial portion will utilize interval or ratio scale that will assess the age and demographics of the individual taking the survey.  The information is pertinent to gather a well-rounded opinion base of all ages and demographic areas.  The second portion of the survey will utilize the Likert scale to assess the attitude and opinion of the taker.  Utilization of purpose-built selected-response style hinges the true or false responses of participants (Hogan, 2007).  He last question will establish potential bias in individual answers.  The survey will consist of fifteen questions that should take no more than ten minutes to complete yielding it a more effective survey as immediate response usually yields the true attitude of the individual (Hogan, 2007).  There will be 15 scores produced.

Scoring will consist of a computer-generated compilation of all scores that will reflect in fifteen total scores for the fifteen question.  Research suggests that Americans have a negative attitude toward substance abuse and addiction (Join Together Staff, 2014).  A survey taken in 2014 claimed that society felt more comfortable working alongside an individual suffering with mental illness than an addiction and drug addiction gives the right to decline work  (Join Together Staff, 2014).  Additionally, many felt that adequate insurance should not be necessary for an individual with an addiction or abuse issue as well as the mentally ill (Join Together Staff, 2014).  The stigma of substance abuse and addiction that flocks society is that individuals are weak and suffer from moral failing rather than a medical issue that is treatable (Join Together Staff, 2014).  It is this stigma that encourages one to query exactly how deep is the stigma and is it societal induced or a true attitude that encompasses individuals.

Issues Encountered

Designing the survey was fairly difficult.  The decision of who to target proved to be challenging as dividing into age groups would prove more in depth, but also more difficult to evaluate truthfulness and a full understanding of the question at hand.  Choosing an assessment scale also proved difficult as the prior research indicated that society definitively has a negative outlook on substance abuse and addiction that indicated knowledge of the topic could be minimal or massive.  Lastly, deciding on questions that needed little thought was a challenge.  The aim was for questions that yielded a natural and immediate response to thinking about the question could cause an individual to choose a socially acceptable answer versus a true opinion (Hogan, 2007).

Instructions for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

The survey will be administered electronically on-line at free will of the participant.  It will only be administered to individuals residing in the United States, to uphold the American opinion.   Results compilation of fifteen categories or questions will undergo conversion into percentage scores of the fifteen categories.  The first five questions will only deviate the opinion of respected demographics.  The percentage of true implies the negative opinion of substance abuse and addiction whereas the false implies a more positive opinion, meaning substance abuse and addiction are preventable medical conditions through the use of public awareness efforts and treated.  The last question is solely intended to identify if the individual may present answers with bias.  Prior research implicates the American majority has a negative opinion of substance abuse and addiction, however, that research may prove to be misleading through a survey that eliminates thought time by utilizing basic and thoughtless automatic responses.


Measuring the attitude, potency, and activity of an individual’s perception of certain topics by eliminating obstacles that lead them to answer socially correct as opposed to personally accepted opinions eliminates the possibility of an invalid survey (Hogan, 2007).  The survey developed aims to meet all the professed goals.  He results yielded will allow researchers to gather an understanding of where societal, opinion lies regarding the society as a whole.  By understanding the true opinions, one can develop a plan of action that aims to educate the public that will bring a wider acceptance of the medical condition of substance abuse and addiction.



Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Join Together Staff. (2014). Partnership for Drug-Free Kids. Retrieved from http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/survey-people-negative-opinions-drug-addiction-mental-illness/

McLeod, S. A. (2009). Attitude Measurement. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/attitude-measurement.html

National Institute on Drug Abuse: The Science of Drug Abuse & Addiction. (November 2009). Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-abuse-addiction


Attitude Survey

  1. Are you over 25?                                                                                T             F
  2. Are you under 18?                                         T             F
  3. I live in the United States T             F
  4. I live in an urban area           T             F
  5. I live in a suburb or rural area T            F
  6. Use of drugs should be legal in the confines of a person’s home T            F
  7. Experimenting with drugs and alcohol is normal T            F
  8. People can stop using drugs or alcohol if they want to stop T            F
  9. An addict has no willpower T            F
  10. Addiction is a mental health issue T            F
  11. Substance abusers are dangerous people                                              T           F
  12. People with substance addiction are selfish and disrespectful T           F
  13. Substance addiction decreases lifespan T           F
  14. Addiction is curable T           F
  15. I never tried a drug T          F

Psychological Testing

The human mind is an elaborate make-up of infinite characteristics defined through assessments and testing.  Psychological testing and assessments hold the ability to identify norms and irregularities in human thought and behavior (“American Psychological Association”, 2015).  Through various categories of testing, researchers and psychologists can recognize characteristics and behaviors of humans necessary to establish norms and abnormalities of the human mind.


Psychological testing is the implementation of assessments and tests that delve into an individual’s thoughts and behavior to define personality and behavioral traits defining them as an individual (“American Psychological Association”, 2015).  A test is a standardized process that quantifies behavior and cognition (Hogan, 2007).   According to the “American Psychological Association (2015), psychological tests are administered for a variety of reasons making it is necessary to have a variety of tests.  Testing aids in pinpointing the underlying cause of the potential issue that is being assessed (“American Psychological Association,” 2015).  Administering psychological tests helps to identify the problem, understand the nature of the problem, as well as develop ways to intervene and address the problem (“American Psychological Association,” 2015).   There are several categories of tests utilized by professionals that establish the norm and abnormalities in individual cognition and behavior.

Categories of Tests

There are five categories of tests that set the foundation of behavior and cognitive functioning within a group or individual (Hogan, 2007).  Mental ability tests measure a variety of cognitive functions such as spatial visualization, memory, and creative thinking administered to a group or individually (Hogan, 2007).  Historically, these abilities combined with quantitative reasoning, and vocabulary made up intelligence testing known as other abilities (Hogan, 2007).  Achievement testing, the most widely used category, apprises knowledge or skill in a specific domain (Hogan, 2007).  Achievement batteries are utilized in educational settings to evaluate the consummation of the basic educational subjects (Hogan, 2007).  Single subject achievement tests evaluate the knowledge of a single subject and certification and licensing testing notates an area of specialization of performance (Hogan, 2007).  Government agency sponsored achievement testing establishes if an individual has attained enough knowledge to quantify the completion of a specific domain (Hogan, 2007).  Achievement tests may be administered individually as an aid in identifying cognitive dysfunction and develop a treatment plan (Hogan, 2007).

Personality testing is utilized to gain understanding and clarity of certain personality traits held by an individual (Hogan, 2007).  Objective personality tests utilize a true and false inventory of questions that identify similarities and differences among several clinical groups through a comparison (Hogan, 2007).  Objective personality tests contain two subcategories:  Normal range assessment and pathological or disabling conditions (Hogan, 2007).  Projective techniques are simple and unstructured tests that aim to identify definitive personality pieces (Hogan, 2007).

Vocational testing explores interests and attitudes towards different aspects of life that can be utilized to provide career opportunities that relate to personal interest (Hogan, 2007).  Neuropsychological tests utilize personality and ability tests in areas such as memory, verbal, and figural material to assess the functioning of the central nervous system (Hogan, 2007).  The primary focus is to assess the brain functioning of an individual to establish if there is an underlying abnormality that may be contributing to abnormal performance and behavior (Hogan, 2007).  Tests are used to conduct research in a variety of fields with a variety of purposes (Hogan, 2007).

Major Uses and Users of Psychological Testing

Settings of psychological vary depending on what is being measured.  Clinical use of psychological testing identifies the nature and severity of a potential problem (Hogan, 2007).   Psychologists, counselors, and neuropsychologists establish the severity on a scale of severe, such as an underlying schizoid disorder, to mild, as in selecting a college major (Hogan, 2007).  Primarily intelligence testing is utilized in clinical settings. However, objective personality and projective techniques are also popular in diagnosing and treating individuals (Hogan, 2007).

Educational settings utilize ability and achievement testing in a group setting to establish the level of student learning and predict success in academic work (Hogan, 2007).  Teachers, parents, the general public, and educational administrators administer standardized tests in a group setting (Hogan, 2007).  Personnel and employment testing are utilized my businesses and military to select individuals for a position (Hogan, 2007).  Vocational, intelligence, and personality tests are administered to identify general ability, skills, and personality characteristics that identify the individual’s ability to perform a specific task Hogan, 2007).  The military also utilizes vocational testing to allocate properly human resources to optimize the overall efficiency of the military unit (Hogan, 2007).

The most diverse users of psychological testing are researchers who use testing in all areas (Hogan, 2007).  The test being utilized is the dependent variable in research in the sense that the test defines what is being tested (Hogan, 2007).  Using testing in research eliminates the necessity of developing a new measure, identifying normative and reliability information, and having to prove replicability (Hogan, 2007).  The use of pre-established tests signifies that pre-established norms, and therefore, standard deviations are already known making it easier to compare results (Hogan, 2007).  Norms are the mean average results of testing among larger groups (Hogan, 2007).  An established norm allows researchers to compare results and establish reliability and validity of research and testing (Hogan, 2007).

Reliability and Validity

Norms, in conjunction with reliability and validity, establish the core of test theory (Hogan, 2007).  Reliability and validity are essential components of psychological testing.  The concern of reliability is that test scores prove to be stable whereas, validity is concerned that the test measures what it purports actually to measure (Hogan, 2007).  Testing must be proven reliable, however, it is not required to be valid (Hogan, 2007).  Although a test does not have to be valid to be reliable, reliability is necessary to prove validity (Hogan, 2007).  A test that is consistently reliable yields replicable, similar scoring and can be depended upon to replicate the similar score each administration (Hogan, 2007).  A valid test must be proven to test what it purports to test and not carry the potential to test something else (Hogan, 2007).  The degree of validity establishes the extent of the effectiveness of the test (Hogan, 2007).   The strength of a test relies heavily on its reliability and validity, although validity is necessary for reliability, a test having both proves stronger than one lacking validity (Hogan, 2007).


Testing provides an efficient way of aggregating information of the human mind. Testing is utilized to compare and contrast an individual to the norms of a group and establish potential deficiencies. Categorical tests allow researchers and psychologists to delve into certain aspects of human functioning.  Testing and assessment allow researchers and psychologists to learn the norms of human nature and develop a plan of intervention and action when an individual emits a dysfunction in the mind or behavior.  Reliable and valid testing set the foundation that establishes the expected norms of humans. 



American Psychological Association. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/assessment.aspx

Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.


Noise Pollution

Pro-environmental behavior is imperative to sustain the environment in the future.  To alleviate the effects humans have on the environment it is necessary that society adopts pro-environmental behaviors (Steg, 2013).  A means of promoting behavioral change is through informational strategies that supply individuals with the knowledge, awareness, norms, and attitudes about an issue (Steg, 2013).  Structural strategies incorporate a physical mean to modify behavior into a desired one (Steg, 2013).  Implementing informational and structural strategies promotes the interventions necessary to support pro-environmental behavior (Steg, 2013).  It is vital to have proper planning to ensure the effectiveness of the intervention (Steg, 2013).  The behaviors seeking modification should have a larger environmental impact (Steg, 2013).  Additionally, the intervention plan should be routed in theory that can be pre- and post-tested for effectiveness (Steg, 2013).

The most recent data obtained on noise pollution dates back to 1981, at which time a third of the American population suffered from noise-induced health effects (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014). Essentially, education is the primary need of intervention for noise pollution.  Research suggests many health issues are caused by excessive, habitual exposure to noise (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).  As urbanization increases, noise is also expected to rise warranting the urgency of implementing laws and regulation for decreasing noise (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).  Incorporating noise on the Federal Public Health Agenda promotes the Affordable Healthcare Act its (AHA) purpose to increase the number of Americans that are healthy at every stage of life (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).   Additionally, the Department of Health and Human Services has a focus on decreasing noise-induced hearing loss and increase cardiovascular health and reduce coronary disease (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).  The federal objectives would benefit greatly by supplying communities with knowledge explaining what noise pollution is, its prevalence and the established health tolls it takes on individuals (Steg, 2013).  Providing the public with knowledge increases awareness that could trigger a motivation to modify the behaviors that contribute to the noise pollution in the community (Steg, 2013).

Direct regulation of source control is another strategy to promote positive environmental change (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).   In 1972, Congress passed the Noise Control Act (NCA) which allowed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate noise emitted from construction, transportation, and technological equipment (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).   The NCA also allowed the EPA to regulate noise emission from compressors, trash compactors, trucks, and motorcycles, but failed at regulating lawnmowers causing a loss of funding (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).  The previous noise reduction policies reduced noise exposure by 90% since 1981 alone in air travel (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).  With all the new technological advances today, resuming the NCA, could further reduce noise emittance (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).  Reducing noise emittance will improve the number of noise-related health problems in the United States (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).  However, due to the lack of financial support from Congress, regulation is capped leaving little room for improvement (Hammer, Swinburn, & Nietzel, 2014).

Implementing informational strategies holds the potential to develop motivation in the community to support the effort of the Noise Control Act (Steg, 2013).  Resuming the Noise control Act promotes a strategic plan of reducing noise emittance that supports the federal desire of ensuring health and prevention of noise ailments throughout life (Steg, 2013).  Implementing a plan of action to reduce noise emittance promotes a pro-environmental behavior change through community support and federal regulatory laws.


According to B. F.  Skinner, a behavior is determined by positive or negative consequences (McLeod, 2015).  Skinner theorized that the use of positive consequences reinforces behavior promoting its reoccurrence (McLeod, 2015).  The use of negative reinforcement weakens the behavior promoting behavioral change (McLeod, 2015).  Skinner also believed the use of punishment also weakens behavior and deters its reoccurrence (McLeod, 2015).  When attempting to modify behavior, it is important that the environment contain prompts declaring the consequence of behavior (Steg, 2013).  For instance, communities may post signs depicting times the noise is acceptable at higher levels and consequences if found in violation of the published ordinance.  It is also important to convey the natural consequences of noise pollution (Steg, 2013).  For instance, a warning that loud music over an extended period may cause hearing loss should prove beneficial in a night club setting.  Behaviors that contain positive natural consequences may turn out to be more beneficial than those lacking because the internal reward of self-gratification is sometimes more fulfilling than an external consequence (Steg, 2013).  In many instances, individuals are aware of the consequences of their negative behavior on the environment, but they lack the motivation to adopt pro-environmental behaviors (Steg, 2013).  An individual may be aware that startling an individual from sleep not only interrupts sleep, but also increases blood pressure from shock, but they continue to set off fireworks in the middle of the night.  Naturally occurring consequences, such as the personal enjoyment of seeing fireworks, are sometimes perceived as more beneficial than the result of avoiding the behavior (Steg, 2013).  When this is the case, it is necessary to utilize intervention motivation techniques such as extra consequences that have more of an adverse effect than the naturally occurring consequences (Steg, 2013).  When an individual sets off fireworks after established ordinance times, issuing a ticket that imposes a financial payment may deter the behavior.  On the other hand, rewarding individuals with a free fireworks show a few times throughout the year may prevent them from purchasing and setting them off late at night.  The reward would be a financial saving to the individual as they will not receive a ticket, and they can still view the fireworks.

Technological Advances

Technology is perceived as a way to make life easier. However, there are negative side-effects to technological advances (Steg, 2013).  Technological advancement has made it possible to carry noise in a pocket.  Cellular phones have become smart because they can be programmed to play music available at the touch of a screen and allow a phone call anywhere at any time.  Cell phones make unwanted noise a constant variable in the environment.  Additionally, technology has led to the development and construction of vehicles, buildings, and televisions.  Vehicle driving throughout the night interrupts sleep that hinders productivity.  The construction utilizes loud machinery throughout the day and sometimes night that eliminates quiet time.  Television has become “America’s favorite pastime” emanating an almost constant noise throughout living spaces and waiting rooms.  Technology has increased noise amounts and levels with advancements.  Although technological advances have had some negative impact on noise pollution in the environment, technology is vital to persuade individuals to adopt pro-environmental behaviors (Steg, 2013).  Technology allows the utilization of ambient intelligence to prompt individuals to reduce noise (Steg, 2013).  The use of interactive feedback on a group and individual level persuades individuals to adopt socially accepted behaviors (Steg, 2013).  In a group setting, individuals can decide on an acceptable standard of music.  When there are several people involved, individuals are more easily persuaded to conform to adequate volumes as they desire to fall within the social norm.

Environmental Policies

Environmental policies are rules of engagement when interacting with the environment (Steg, 2013).  Developing environmental policies takes consideration of the acceptability of the policy, the attitude of society toward the policy as social support is necessary for the policy to be effective (Steg, 2013).  Environmental policies are designed to promote behavior change through the outlined regulations in support of environmental sustainability (Steg, 2013).  Attaining Environmental sustainability suggests behavior modification is necessary through the use of consequences (Steg, 2013).  Policy measures may cause social dilemmas as the positive consequences affect society as whole, but the negative consequences affect the individual (Steg, 2013).  Individuals are more supportive of a policy that will eliminate a reduction in a collection of problems (Steg, 20113).  For instance, implementing a policy of noise ordinance in a community has a collective response.   Implementing a noise ordinance decreases sleep interruptions that will increase alertness and decrease blood pressure (Goines & Hagler, 2007).  Health improves as a whole.  The community as a whole receives the benefit as well as the individual who leads the community to accept the policy and implement the necessary behavior changes.


Although there is little data collected on noise pollution, it is an environmental problem that needs immediate intervention.  The health effects of noise pollution include sleep deprivation that affects the quality of life, coronary health issues, as well as cardiovascular problems (Goines & Hagler, 2007).  As population and urbanization increase, noise pollution and health problems inflate.  Incorporating knowledge and awareness of the effect of noise on society and health may trigger the motivation necessary to change behavior having an adverse impact on the environment.  Implementing regulatory policies that are widely accepted and supported by the community will promote positive behavior change in support of sustainability.


Goines, L., & Hagler, MD, L. (2007, March). Noise Pollution: A Modern Plague. Southern Medical Journal, 100, 287-294. Retrieved from http://www.nonoise.org/library/smj/smj.htm

Hammer, M. S., Swinburn, T. K., & Nietzel, R. L. (2014, February). Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2(122), 115-119. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.130727

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner – Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Mead, M. N. (2007, November). Noise Pollution: The Sound Behind Heart Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(11), A536-A537. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2072857/

Steg, L. (2013). Environmental psychology: An introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.