Environmental Psychology

Effects of Human Behavior on the Environment

Human behavior can have positive or adverse effects on the environment.  Environmental cues produce societal behaviors.  The societal behaviors establish the societal norms that create an internal drive to attain a set goal.  In today’s societies, environmental preservation does not seem to be at the top of the agenda.  Although efforts are made to increase the awareness of the dangers the environment faces in the future, many times, society fails to realize the full extent their behavior takes on the environment.  It is important to practice preservation now to attain sustainability in the future.  Developing preservation plans supported by society will lead to a more behavior conscious pro-environmental individual.

Environmental Cues and Behavior

Environmental cues are aspects of an experience that trigger a reactive response (Steg, 2013).   Reactive responses are the behaviors influenced by environmental cues.  Individual exposure to an experience receives a signal that triggers a behavior response causing the individual to react in a particular manner (Steg, 2013).   The environmental cues inform the individual of what is occurring in the environment influencing the expected reciprocated behavior (Steg, 2013).  A student who is caught cheating on an assignment is suspended from school rendering him or her unable to complete assignments during that time.  The incomplete assignments reflect negatively on the student’s grade.  Other students in the class see the punishment as a negative reflection of the individual and, therefore, avoid cheating on their assignments.  The environmental cue in this scenario is the punishment inflicted upon the cheating student.  The environmental cue influences other students no to repeat the negative behavior to avoid bad grades and suspension.

Behavior modification is attained through various efforts.  One way is for an individual to receive an incentive for positive behavior (McLeod, 2015).  A less fortunate individual searches for recyclables by shifting through trash.  The recyclables may potentially be their next meal.  An individual sees the behavior and develops a motivation to help by separating the recyclables from the common trash.  The incentive works two ways, the one in need receives a monetary supplement used to fulfill their hunger.  The individual who took the time to separate the recyclables receives the incentive of internal satisfaction of helping someone in need, as well as saving time and the appearance of the area around the trash receptacle.  Additionally, both people have done a part in preserving the environment that also gives an internal feel of satisfaction.

Behavior can be contagious.  When an individual perceives a behavior as socially acceptable, the behavior is more likely to be repeated (McLeod, 2015).  However, behavior perceived as socially unacceptable will more likely be negated, and another action adopted instead (McLeod, 2015).  For instance, if the street is littered, the individual perceives this as acceptable and may also litter.  However, if the streets are clean, the individual is more likely to find a trash can or even pick up loose litter dirtying the environment (Steg, 2023).  Once a non-environmental behavior becomes habitual, it is evident that effort must be made to modify the negative behavior to sustain the environment and its resources for the future (Steg, 2013).

Behavior Modification to Support Sustainability

The principle of sustainability is the understanding that all survival needs are met either directly or indirectly through the environment (“Epa: United States Environmental Protection Agency”, August 28, 2015).  Pursuing sustainability is to create and maintain harmonic conditions between nature and humans while permitting social and economic requirements for present and future generations (“Epa: United States Environmental Protection Agency”, August 28, 2015).    Learned behavior carries the potential of modification through the use of conditioning techniques to support the cause (McLeod, 2014).  Behavior modification relies on the theory of operant conditioning which claims that changing environmental events that produce the behavior can be modified by offering an incentive for desired behavior or consequences for undesired behavior (McLeod, 2014).

The woman looking for recyclables had a goal of finding enough recyclables to produce enough money for a meal.  The individual had a goal of having a neat garbage storage area.  Both incentives are primary. However, a secondary incentive remains:  Both individuals did something positive for the environment.  The secondary reinforcement inflicted feelings of satisfaction of doing the right thing giving more incentive to repeat the behavior.  Combining an external reward with a positive internal feeling promotes the continuance of the behavior.

Modifying a behavior that has a negative impact on the environment promotes preservation for the future (Steg, 2013).  Although an incentive should not be necessary to impact a person to preserve the environment, it does promote a positive change.  The contagiousness of moods appears to be similar to the contagiousness of behavior (Steg, 2013).  When an individual perceives a behavior as positive, it becomes inviting and desirable (McLeod, 2014).  To sustain the environment, it is imperative that behavior modifications among the communities take an immediate effect (“Epa: United States Environmental Protection Agency”, August 28, 2015).  Simple behaviors such as carpooling, walking to work, or shutting off the water when brushing one’s teeth will aid in sustaining environmental resources (“Epa: United States Environmental Protection Agency”, August 28, 2015).  Implementing a plan to sustain the environment may produce a societal acceptance of preservation efforts causing the effort to become a social norm.

Social Norms

A social norm is a behavior perceived as acceptable and expected within a certain environment.  Every environment has established social norms that apply to a certain environment (Steg, 2013).  When an individual reacts in a manner that deviates away from the social norm for any reason, the civic cooperation and rule of law are sacrificed (Steg, 2013).  The influence of social norms and normative goals is most secure when the behavior and goal are accepted and promoted by others (Steg, 2013).  Therefore, a community with a higher support of behavior causes an individual to conform to the accepted behavior (Steg, 2013).  When adopting a pro-environmental behavior, it is necessary to recognize environmental cues, social norms, and rules emphasizing the goal (Steg, 2013).  In turn, if the goal is strong and pools enough support from society, respect for the goal is developed which will reflect in individual behavior that supports the goal (Steg, 2013).

Sometimes obstacles hinder a goal. Therefore, it is necessary to remove any obstacles that may deplete the motivation to support the cause (McLeod, 2014).  When the goal is to promote recycling, it is necessary to make the goal attainable by supplying separate bins or a center within the community to encourage consistency.  Having a consistency behind a behavior causes the behavior to become habitual, and, therefore, a more permanent behavior modification (McLeod, 2014).


The EPA declares that achieving sustainability is dependent upon a plan that focuses on economic, social, and environmental requirements that cause a harmony among all in the environment (2015).   Although environmental preservation is a huge combination of different techniques developed to protect the different resources, it is important first to protect the future.  Protecting the future means supplying the children of today with knowledge and tools available to preserve the environment will prove to be a sufficient start.  Children have an entire world of support.  They are the secret weapon of a sound tomorrow.  Teaching a child, the importance of and how to preserve the environment will condition them to adopt preservation behaviors such as recycling and saving resources and energy.  Teaching a child, the potential for the behavior will develop an internal motivation to “save the planet”, as they want a beautiful world to raise their children in.

Additionally, making preservation economically attainable is vital.  Going green is more costly than traditional purchasing.  The products accrue a higher cost as living organic tends to cost more.  Consumers pay more for organically grown food than food sprayed with chemicals and animals injected with hormones. The chemicals used in farming carry the potential to increase disease, as infinite warnings of the potential effect eating a certain food may cause.  As the world has evolved so has generalized illness and disease.  The chemicals used in farming trickle into the water supply that is run into homes.  Reducing the cost of organic living will cause more people to purchase organic food and less chemically treated food.  Organic food will become the demand requiring an increase in supply in turn increasing higher profit.  The higher profits could then be used to fund things like water filters, solar lighting, or even more education on preservation.


A sound environment is essential for human existence.  Preserving the environment solidifies a harmonic environment for the future.  Although efforts at attaining environmental sustainability have begun, it has been a slow process implementing the necessary preservation plans.  The best way to ensure a pro-environmental future is to begin educating the children who will be the future.


EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency. (August 28, 2015). Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sustainability/learn-about-sustainability#what

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner – Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Steg, L. (2013). Environmental psychology: An introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Environmental Psychology

Environmental Risk Perceptions: Article Analysis of Contaminated Water

Water and food are the two most basic necessities required to live.  Without food, humans will starve to death, however life can be prolonged by having access to drinking water.  An individual who has drinking water and no food can survive for up to three weeks, but without water, survival rate drops significantly to a few days (World Health Organization, 2015).  Water is vital to organs, digestion, and muscle health (World Health Organization, 2015).    Having such an emphasized need of water, it would seem as though safe drinking water is the primary concern for humans.  However, unsafe drinking water has become an epidemic throughout the world resulting in major illness and death among the human race.

The well-being of humans is dependent on safe drinking water in the aspect of quality and availability as well as its managed preservation (World Health Organization, 2015).  Water contamination leads to a wide range of diseases which often lead to death (World Health Organization, 2015).  Regulating naturally occurring chemicals contained in the drinking water could potentially reduce a large number of reported illnesses, especially in infants and young children (World Health Organization).  Due to weaker immune systems, children are more susceptible to contracting water-borne illness because the higher trace of naturally occurring chemicals in drinking water may be too high for the child resulting in diarrhea that, at times results in death (World Health Organization, 2015).  Improving the quality of drinking water could potentially reduce diarrhea incidence alone by twenty-fiver percent and infant mortality by sixty-five percent across the world (World Health Organization, 2015).

Article 1

Lucas, Cabral, and Colford conducted a review of several studies finding contaminated water, detrimental to the health of water consumers, is a public health threat in the developed world (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  It was reported that consumer households risk consuming water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens holds the potential of major illness, including the possibility of death (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  Some water supplies tested positive for fecal matter which may cause a diarrheal disease  known to lead to death and especially susceptible to children under the age of five and those who have compromised immune systems, resulting in 78% of deaths occurring in the developing world (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  Drinking water was also found to contain chemical contamination with highest health risk contaminants being arsenic and fluoride, although chemical contamination presents a smaller globalization risk than fecal matter (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).

Lucas, Cabral, and Colford declare there is interventions that can be implemented which will reduce the diseases attributed to contaminated drinking (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  It is suggested that interventions of water quality through community management at the main source or directly in the consumer home could reduce childhood diarrhea mobidity alone by 42% (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).   However, community management monitoring produces a high cost believed to be the reason for the failed attempts of providing safe water into the consumer home (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  Promoting the testing of water and disseminatin the contamination levels to consumers may bring about the awareness of the necessity of a behavior change of water management at the community level as well as the household level (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  Changing the water management behavior is expected to an increase in health and lower morbidity rates caused by contaminated water (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).

Article 2

Hunter, MacDonald, and Carter confront the water controversy in this article that depicts the different types of contamination found in drinking water and the potential effects on health (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).   The article aims to gather a commitment from government bodies to ensure improved water conditions with an adequate supply to the population in an effort to decrease health risks and deflate infant mortality rate caused by unsafe drinking water (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).  There is a direct reference to the diarrhea diseases and its link to malnutrition, poor education which directly results in hindering a child from reaching maximum potential later in life (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).  Additionally the article points out the detrimental effects of organic and inorganic chemicals contaminating water, the highest alarming is the arsenic contamination found to cause cancer and skin disorders among other severe health effects (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).  There are also indirect health effects contaminated water causes such as hygiene and sanitation (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).

It has been argued that implementing improved water conditions will provide significant economic returns such as reduced healthcare costs and less time consumption working on emergency interventions as maintainence is less costly than emergencies (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).  Although there is an econmonic return if interventions are implemented, the cost of implementation, especially in poor areas may not be attainable and may not produce enough revenue to maintain the system causing a maintenance to be neglected (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).  The fact that groundwater supply is inconsistent across the globe poses an issue as adequate water supply is difficult in some areas, especially in impoverished areas who cannot afford to pay for something that has always been “free” (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).  Hunter, MacDonald, and Carter declare that it is imperative for the community to provide interventions for safe water as public health is at severe risk and the death toll will continue to rise (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).

Risk Perceptions

An environmental risk is an action that carries the potential of creating adverse effects on the physical and live environment through waste, pollution, emissions or other effects (Steg, 2013).  The risks are complex and uncertain and are many times caused by human and animal behaviors (Steg, 2013).  However, human perception varies among individuals which poses a conflict in the perception of environmental risks, or the consequences of human behavior (Steg, 2013).  Values, ethics, and morals persuade human perception therefore, an something perceived as an environmental risk to one individual may be perceived as not risky to another (Steg, 2013).  For instance, the concern of safe drinking water may not affect a wealthy community as safe water is more prominent, however, individuals in poorer communities may perceive drinking water as an environmental risk.

Both articles mandate the vitality of safe drinking water as the effect of contaminated water poses major health risks.  Contaminated water is reported to cause severe physical illness that carries the potential of death.  Both articles claim that immediate intervention is necessary to decrease infant mortality and increase health promoting children to maximize their development and potential in life.  Article one illustrates an economic return that will create profit even in poorer communities.  On the contrary, article two illustrates the potential of exorbitant cost that may not be attainable by all communities, especially in underdeveloped countries.  Article one claims that intervention is possible in all areas, even if it is established interventions at the home level.  However, article two points out that groundwater is inconsistent across the globe posing difficulty supplying safe water to all areas.  The first article emphasizes public awareness will cause motivation in the public eye to intervene and implement a decontamination system as it will improve health.  The second article declares that public and government officials along with the wealthy communities should ban together and support improvement efforts to protect the human existence.  Consistent in both articles is that the death toll will continue to rise and illness will continue to overtake our communities if uncontaminated water is not provided to the population.

Environmental stressors leading to the pandemic of contaminated water are both organic and inorganic.  Fecal matter found in water is caused by animals or plumming failure ((Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  Chemicals used in factories may leak into the groundwater and go unnoticed without consistent monitoring (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  Natural disasters have also proven to be environmental stressors as they hold potential for destruction that may carry through groundwater (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).  There are infinite causes of the contamination making intervention difficult without constant monitoring (Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr, 2011).

Personal Perception

Water is the most important necessity in life.  It serves as a humans lubricant to keep them functioning properly.  Supplying a  human body with contaminated water slowly breaks them down filling their body with disease internally and externally.  It almost seems as if it is turning into a form of population control.  There are interventions available that could be implemented to supply safe water to communities, however, it appears that the wealthy are the only ones reaping benefit of the interventions.  Economic return may not be as high as desired, but a monetary value cannot be put on any life and for that reason alone, more effort should be put into saving the life of the environment.  A child is the key to the future.  Forcing that child to drink and bathe in a substance that is known to cause major debilitating illness hinders their development and brain growth further hindering them from reaching their maximum potential in the future (Hunter, MacDonald, & Carter, 2010).  Allowing anyone to live in preventable disease should be a crime therefore the government bodies should mandate safe drinking water.  The return of safe drinking water is much higher than saving a little bit of money today.


Hunter PR, MacDonald AM, Carter RC (2010) Water Supply and Health. PLoS Med 7(11): e1000361. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000361

 Lucas PJ, Cabral C, Colford JM Jr (2011) Dissemination of Drinking Water Contamination Data to Consumers: A Systematic Review of Impact on Consumer Behaviors. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021098

Steg, L. (2013). Environmental psychology: An introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

World Health Organization. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ceh/risks/en/

Environmental Psychology

Environmental Psychology

Environmental psychology is the discipline concerned with the interrelationship between human behavior and environment (Steg, 2013).   Environmental psychologists study the affect humans have on the environment and the manners in which environment affects human behavior in natural and built environments (Steg, 2013).   There is a reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment:  The environment provides the necessities of life and humans nurture and protects the environment that provides for them (Steg, 2013).  Initially, environmental psychology focused on the architectural aspect, studying the effect of building design and its implications for human behavior (Steg, 2013).   However, studying human behavior in the environmental setting included studying the surrounding environment such as society, urbanization, and personal space (Steg, 2013).

Environmental psychology took a greener approach as environmental problems became more evident (Steg, 2013).  Initially, the focus was towards human-caused air pollution and its effects on human health and well-being (Steg, 2013).  Technology consistently advances raising issues of energy supply and risk assessments (Steg, 2013).  Environmental psychology has evolved to include conservation behavior between human and environment interaction (Steg, 2013).

The evolution of the focus of the disciple of environmental psychology is phenomenal.  After the war, environmental psychologists grew curious about the housing provisions for the public and the impact of potential homelessness (Steg, 2013).  The discipline grew to include how humans maintain environment as a means of survival (Steg, 2013).  When the environment began to show signs of deterioration, new studies were launched to decipher preservation efforts (Steg, 2013).  With every notable environmental change, environmental psychology evolved to include theories of other disciplines that could tie in to explain the interrelationship between human behavior and the environment.  It is vital to understand the evolution of environmental psychology to grasp its concepts fully.


Steg, L. (2013). Environmental psychology: An introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Personality Theory – My Five Factor Personality Test

When we think about psychology, we tend to imagine the brain, how it works and how it malfunctions to cause abnormalities among individuals contained within a culture.  When we think about culture, we tend to think about a group of people who share similarities in life.  These similarities how we think an individual’s mentality is influenced by the culture and environment he or she belongs (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  When we think about personality, we think of the qualities and characteristics that form an individual’s demeanor and give them individuality among others (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  You may be wondering what cause’s personality differences among individuals.

Curious by nature, I wonder what creates individuality, or personality.  Personality can be explained through trait theories that are distinguishing characteristics that remain constant in the individual (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Personality can also be defined by identity, or our perceived roles in life, values, motives, and life experiences (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).   Personality is a multi-dimensional construct that forces an individual to stand out from the crowd as beliefs, ethics, morals, and values evolve forming our mentalities in life (McCrae & John, 1990).

Over the past few decades, many have turned o believe that personality contains five factors that ultimately explain the relationship between culture and personality (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience are personality traits universal to all humans (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  These characteristics seem to adhere in culture and cross-culturally as an explanation for individual personality, as culture inevitably aids in determining one’s mentality (“Five Factor Personality Test”).   Extraversion refers to the amount an individual seeks the company of others and how well they handle social situations (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  Agreeableness refers to the perception one has of others, and the ability one has to interact with others (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  Conscientiousness reflects our organization and persistence (“Five Factor Personality Test”). Neuroticism emphasizes the individual’s emotional feelings of negativity (“Five Factor Personality Test”). Openness to experience is an individual’s interest in culture and having an open mind (“Five Factor Personality Test”).

I found it interesting that all five of these traits can be universal among all cultures.  How could it be that even though our thoughts differ, we maintain the same traits?  According to Matsumoto and Juang, researchers have conducted many studies that aim to prove the credence of the five-factor model (2013).  In doing research, cultural similarities were implicated as well as cultural differences (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Additionally, differences were also reported culturally and cross-culturally which implicates the individualism involved in personality (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  The research proves a stability in the five traits implicating that cultures, although have differing beliefs, maintain the same traits of personality (McCrae & John, 1990).

Another curiosity evolved in me.  I wonder how exactly can a simple test establish the extent of one’s individuality?  Doing research, I found the same explanation:  Personality evolves from a cultural belief system that alters throughout the lifespan (McCrae & John, 1990).  As the individual matures, however, the same fundamental traits remain intact and only evolve in strength (McCrae & John, 1990).  I decided to dig in and complete my own personal research.  I stumbled across the Five-Factor Personality test .  I took the test twice,  the first time, I was just curious and mellow tempered without a lot of chaos (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  The results yielded average extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  However, I scored high in agreeableness and openness (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  Initially, I believed what the results yielded and began writing this blog.  However, an eruption in my personal life put my writing on hold.  I started writing again at deadline time under an enormous amount of stress that took me away from the paper.  So I retook the test.  My results yielded high neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  However, my extraversion and agreeableness score was now low (“Five Factor Personality Test”).  Nothing was average the second test.  Not that I do not believe in the validity or accuracy of the results, but there was a fluctuation in the results (“Five Factor Personality Test”).   I believe tbased on an individual’s personal emotions and life experience at the time of the test taking.  The first results I attribute to experiencing a fair mood with little or average stress.  The second, I attribute to the extreme stress I was experiencing, not just because my blog is late, but also the stressful life experiences I was dealing with as well.

Although personality testing has been around for as long as personality psychology branched into its field, many denied the validity it held (McCrae & John, 1990).  It was believed impossible that all humans hold the same traits in any aspect that is the reason that we all differ in mentality (McCrae & John, 1990).  However, personality psychologists began implementing testing that correlated across cultures, but all seem to yield similar results with varying levels of degree (McCrae & John, 1990).  As tests were adapted to appeal to the different cultural beliefs, the same five traits were apparent among all cultures: Neuroticism, agreeableness, openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness (McCrae & John, 1990).

Individualism defines who we are mentally and physically.  We are born into the world as an infant and provided a foundation upon which we are built.  This foundation gives us beliefs, ethics, and morals that deviate who we are cultural.  The environment of which we come from aids in providing experiences that evolve our personality as we mature in life.  Although the degrees of our beliefs vary, we still stand on the foundation of these five traits that make up a universal position of personality.


Five Factor Personality Test. Retrieved from http://www.personalitytest.org.uk/

Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2013) An introduction to culture and psychology (5th ed) Wadsworth Cengage Learning Inc.

McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1990, October 1). An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications. 175-215. Retrieved from http://www.workplacebullying.org/multi/pdf/5factor-theory.pdf

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Cross-Cultural Psychology: A Stereotyping Study


A four-year longitudinal study investigated the adaptations of stereotypes of Finnish immigrants pre-migration and post-migration at both the group and individual level (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  The study was designed to learn the effects of increased contact with stereotypes as well as learn how stereotypes develop via Ingrian Finn and Russian hosts (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Previous studies conducted on Princeton students indicated that national stereotypes did change. However, changes occurred over long periods of time but remained stable in shorter periods (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Previous studies indicated intergroup contact either increased or decrease the stereotype consensus, but the evidence does not allow for a definitive conclusion (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Additionally, prior studies also indicated that intraindividual contact the stability of the stereotype was only moderate (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  The stability indicates consensual stereotype change is likely influenced by common societal and institutional influences (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).   The more positive intraindividual contact is, the more likely a change of stereotype will occur (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).



As the world evolves into diverse cultures, psychologists came to the understanding, the necessity of researching those cultures to find the actual causes of human behavior beyond a single culture (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Cultural psychologists attempt to gain an understanding of human behavior by concerning itself with the influences culture has on the human mind (Hiles, 1996).  Wilhelm Wundt believed studying all aspects of culture would lead to studying the higher mental processes that could not be reached directly, rather indirectly through culture (Hiles, 1996).  Attempting to grasp an understanding of the causes of human behavior through a single culture may have bias results as those results may vary throughout different cultures (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Cross – cultural psychologists gain understanding of human behavior by delving into the differences of cultural influences on behavior (Matsumosto & Juang, 2013).

In the stereotype study, individuals were given a questionnaire that defined the universal ten fundamental values (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  A consistency among the Finns and the Russians proved the two cultures share similar values, but the desire of the values differ among the two cultures (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Culture has a significant impact on the desire for each value instilled in an individual from birth (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  The inconsistency of the desire of the values between the two cultures implies different cultures hold different beliefs and put emphasis in certain areas of development (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Utilizing questionnaires with both the migrants and the hosts eliminated possible bias in the study (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Evidence suggests that both cultures stay in line with the cultural belief of values as the values remained consistent throughout the four-year study (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).


Cultural psychology focuses on the totality of the influence of culture on human behavior (Hiles, 1996).  Research includes studies on individual cultures that produces reasoning for certain behaviors (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  The increasing diversity in culture, mandates the necessity of comparing the different cultural effects on human behavior, as demonstrated by cross-cultural psychology (Hiles, 1996).  Research including only one culture provides results specific to that culture, but may prove different among other cultures (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Cross-cultural psychology eliminates bias and produces results more consistent with all cultures and allows for a comparison between the diversity of the cultures (Hiles, 1996).  Comparing the differences in the cultural effects on the human mind creates a gateway to a more enhanced understanding of behavior among diversity (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  The Russian and Finn stereotype study was conducted on a group cultural level and an individual cultural level (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  The study yielded results that over time, individuals though more negative of the opposite culture implying that negative interaction among cultures builds up an equal amount of discrimination among the cultures which is stable throughout two different cultures (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  A study yielding the same results for two or more cultures allows for a studies evidence to be perceived as meaningful and relevant when implemented as a generalized theory (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).

Cross-cultural Research Methodology

Cross-cultural research is a method of scientific philosophy in which research and testing is used to validate a study conducted with ethical means and scientific methods involving the inclusion of various cultural backgrounds (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  The global perspective allows researchers to learn differences and similarities among diverse cultures and test whether behavior is culture-specific or universal among all cultures (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  It is imperative researchers establish a valid comparison that defines the reason behind the study (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  A comparative form of research is utilized as a means to link culture and behavior (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Unpackaging studies measure the variable thought to produce the observed differences in behavior is tested to explain its role in behavior (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Individual-level measure of culture assess the variable that is thought to be caused by culture (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  It is important that researchers are able to define potential bias in studies and bring the bias results to a level of equivalence in order for the comparison to be considered meaningful and relevant (Matsumoto & Jung, 2013).

The stereotyping study utilized questionnaire at three different intervals of time and evaluated pre-migration, inter-migration, and post – migration beliefs about the opposite culture (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  The results were compared to gain a mean score of change in values, beliefs, and perceived discrimination among the two cultures (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  The individual questionnaires were collaborated to compile a group mean score to track change at the group level (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).    Comparing both cultures over three intervals reduced the potential bias of the study as the questionnaires yielded similar results at all intervals during the study, eliminating potential buffed or exaggerated results (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  At the individual level, the stereotype profiles indicated only a moderate stability of pre-migration stereotype to post-migration stereotype suggesting Finns and Russians changed their personal pre-migration stereotype post-migration (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).

Ethnicity, Race, and Worldviews Relationships

Individuals develop perceptions based on the cultural beliefs that are instilled in them from birth (Matsumot & Juang, 2015).  As individuals are exposed to certain beliefs and customs, such as the fundamental values of life, they begin to put emphasis on achieving the societal expectations of those values.  Pre-migration, individuals shared similar stereotypes of the opposite culture in the study and the stereotypes we consistent among individuals allowing for a group consensus of the stereotype (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Post-migration, the group stereotype emulated high consistency in the original stereotype indicating that the culture did not change their perception of the other culture (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  However, post-migration emulated that individuals had only moderate consistency of stereotyping implicating personal thoughts of the opposite culture had changed (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  He study proves cultures consistently hold the same values and beliefs, but when an individual is removed from one culture and placed into another, he or she may learn different values and beliefs causing an adaptation of prioritization of values set by the culture those values were adopted from.  Although different cultures and races are perceived through stereotyping, there is a universal system of values that correlates into all cultures, only at varying levels of prioritization (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).   It seems that initially, individuals are taught a particular belief and value system that forms the foundation of their self and world views.  However, when the person explores other cultures, the belief and value system is capable of being altered through new experiences.


Culture is an aspect of life that individuals begin learning from birth (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  All cultures aspire to become productive and competent in life, however, each cultures has a different definition of what it means to become these things (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  The rules of cultural behaviors are learned throughout development so that over time they become second nature and engagement in cultural behavior becomes unconscious (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Socialization is the process by which societal norms, beliefs, attitudes, and values are learned throughout life (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  Socialization promotes enculturation, the process by which individuals learn and adopt culture as it becomes internalized and unconscious behavior (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).   In order for a stereotype to develop, societal expectations must be implanted in the individual, as societal norms, beliefs, attitudes, and values encompass our personal expectations of humans as a whole.   Once these psychological processes internalize, behavior and beliefs shape an individual’s perception of another person or group.  Enculturation includes adopting and adapting certain behavior based on the perceived societal norm (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  In the study, individuals had preconceived notion of the other culture creating a bias and discrimination of the other culture.  As the individual connected with the opposite culture, the preconceived stereotype created a negative interaction hindering the possibility of positivity to occur (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Enculturation is unavoidable as it evolves through socialization from birth (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013) therefore, stereotyping will continue, although it is possible for stereotypes to change.


Stereotyping is unavoidable as evolves from the cultural and societal beliefs instilled in individuals at birth (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).  A study conducted proves there is a universal system of values that varies in priority cross-culturally and may change when exposed to other cultures (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo, 2013).  Although there is a diversity of cultures, there is also many similarities that allow comparisons to be made giving well-rounded insight into behavior.


Hiles, D. (1996, August 16-21). Cultural Psychology and the Centre-ground of Psychology. (Psychology, De Montfort University, Leicester. LE7 9SU. UK.). Retrieved from http://psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/CPpaper.htm

Lönnqvist, J. E., Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., & Verkasalo, M. (2013). Group-level and intraindividual stability of national stereotypes: A four-year longitudinal study on Ingrian Finn immigrants’ pre- and post-migration stereotypes of a typical Finn. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(5), 765-785.

Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2013) An introduction to culture and psychology (5th ed) Wadsworth Cengage Learning Inc.

Industiral / Organizational Psychology

Improving Employee Retention with Pre-determined Scenario


JC’s Casino reports distress in employee retention that appears to reflect with negative customer response.  Dealers report hostile work environments and have chosen lower wage jobs within the local competition.  Housekeepers are reported to have become unreliable and manage a larger workload causing customer dissatisfaction as rooms are not ready for check – in.  The casino President, JC, is desperate for a fix to the casino’s employee retention problem.

Employee retention is crucial to maintaining a positive and consistent organization.  Organizations utilize expense and time to seek out, interview, higher employees, and train employees, which can be costly (“Management Study Guide”, 2013).   Employee retention should be on an organization’s priority list, as losing employees can cost the company productivity and customers, ultimately decreasing profit and success (“Management Study Guide”, 2013).    Positive motivational strategies combined with stress relievers could have a profound impact on employee retention rates.  Proper motivation and reducing stress promotes employee job satisfaction and increases production.  Implementing motivational theories into JC’s Casino could potentially repair damaged areas of the business.


Employee motivation drives the individual to have a desire to maximize performance and seek out higher opportunities (Spector, 2012).  An organization that expects employees to perform at or above a certain level must keep employee motivation high (Spector).  Motivational theories delve into the expectations about the reasons individuals behave and perform in a certain manner, as well as indicate predictors of future performance (Spector, 2012).  JC’s casino appears to lack employee motivation that is affecting customer satisfaction.    Although the housekeepers are paid to clean and prepare rooms by three in the afternoon, they are not reaching their quotas.  The fact that the housekeeper’s attendance is poor causes a heavier, more stressful workload on those who do go to work that does not accommodate meeting their quota. The casino does not offer any form payment for the heavier workload.

Reinforcement Theory

Reinforcement theory implies that motivation through rewards or incentives produces desired behaviors (Spector, 2012).  The perception of behavior is a response to the environment, and motivation occurs externally through the major tenet of the law of effect (McLeod, 2015).  Thorndike declared a behavior supported with an incentive would likely cause repetitive desired behavior and punishment would decline undesired behaviors (Spector, 2012).  The use of positive reinforcement promotes desired behavior through a reward system (McLeod, 2015).  The use of negative reinforcement extracts stimulus that causes negative behaviors and promotes desired behavior (McLeod, 2015).   Punishment deflects undesired behavior through the use of negative consequence for undesired behavior (McLeod, 2015).  All three forms of reinforcement weaken the undesired, or negative behavior while strengthening the positive, or desired behavior.  According to Skinner, applying reinforcement on a consistent basis ultimately leads to a permanent behavior modification that is desirable (McLeod, 2015).

Implementing incentive programs for housekeepers could potentially increase performance and attendance.  JC could reward housekeepers for each room cleaned and prepped over their quota, as this is going beyond normal job expectations.  An additional incentive could be given for each room cleaned and prepped before the three o clock check in time.  Another incentive that can prove to be useful is simple praise.  Praise gives individuals a sense of appreciation and should be given to housekeepers consistently as it is a form of recognition of a job well done.  Adding positively reinforcing incentives promotes higher productivity, better performance, and increased customer satisfaction.  Implementing an incentive program keeps housekeepers motivated to perform above expectation as they strive to obtain an incentive outside of normal pay.  They may begin to feel appreciated and valued by the casino giving an internal desire to report for work and enhance personal job performance.  With incentive programs intact, housekeeper’s absenteeism may be reduced, and retention increased.

Justice and Equity Theories

Justice theories declare employees seek fair, conventional treatment in the workplace (Spector, 2012).  Equity theory declares that individuals compare their performance to others to validate compensation differences.  Comparisons potentially cause an increase in motivation as individuals attempt to perform to the same standard as more respected employees (Spector, 2012).  In a supervisory role, a leader should demonstrate moral and just treatment to motivate employees to maximize their potential and productivity (Spector, 2002).  When an individual feels unvalued or unappreciated by supervisors, performance declines that may result in the employee quitting (Spector, 2012).  Employees strive to attain an equilibrium of fairness among expectations in the workplace.  The inability to attain equilibrium deteriorates motivation and sends a chain reaction of undesired work behaviors (Spector, 2012).  When an employee feels as though their workplace is causing harm to them emotionally, they tend to seek a healthier working environment (Spector, 2012).

Dealers report that job separation is due to hostile work environment created by their supervisor, Joe.  The perception of Joe is “toxic, overbearing, evil, and incompetent” as well as unapproachable by all staff.  Dealers are willing to take a pay cut to achieve job satisfaction through a pleasant work environment.  Additionally, housekeepers feel overwhelmed with higher demands placed on them with no form of compensation.  The unconventional and unjust treatment of the employees has created a deteriorating retention rate that has impacted all aspects of production, customer satisfaction, and profit for the organization.  It is vital that Joe’s performance is confronted and turned around immediately to save the casino.

Stressors and Alleviations

Occupational stress is an occurrence in the workplace that causes an individual to have an adaptive response, similar to a defense mechanism (Spector, 2012).  Individuals experiencing occupational stress may experience job dissatisfaction, loss of motivation, or even health problems (Spector, 2012).  Indicators of stress include heavy workloads, hostile work environments, conflicts, and anything else that appears to be abnormal working environment (Spector, 2012).  At JC’s Casino, employees feel threatened by a hostile work environment created by Joe. The work environment created by the overbearing boss is a major stressor that leads to employee turnover.  Stressors for housekeeping include understaffing, heavy workloads, and having to add more work when employees call out.  Additionally, the administrative staff is under stress because they are asked to fill in when housekeeping cannot handle the demands of the company.  The HR Manager should implement a morals and ethics training class, along with creating a positive work environment for the management team.  The implementation of a training program designed to teach the proper management skills to retain employees should is necessary for Joe, or a replacement boss put into effect immediately.  Repairing the hostile environment is the priority.  Giving the management team insight on the effects of the ways leaders lead should impact management to create a more positive work environment that will allow for employee retention to increase.  Recruitment and training are an immediate need as well.  Housekeepers and dealers are necessary to the operations of the business and having a full, properly trained staff will create a reduction in stress and increase in job satisfaction because the workloads will decrease.  Additionally, a properly trained staff increases retention.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is a the attitude portrayed by an employee accommodating the amount of like or dislike the individual feels about the job (Spector, 2012).  Job satisfaction can have a direct impact on employee turnover if satisfaction is not apparent in the workplace (Spector, 2012).  JC’s Casino has an entire staff that demonstrates poor attitude about their job.  Housekeepers demonstrate inconsistent attendance and are unable to attain goals due to the large workload they experience.  Expectations to cover when someone calls out has become the norm with no compensation for working double duty in the same amount of time.  The use of the administrative staff outside of their job description creates dissatisfaction.  Dealers are forced to deal with a hostile leader.  Alleviating the stressors created by poor management will create satisfaction among employees.  Training Joe how to manage properly or dismissing him from his duty for a more reputable manager will create a more efficient and pleasant work environment.  Adding staff or giving incentives to the housekeepers and administrators who fill on for those calling out will create more satisfaction in the workplace.  Acknowledging employee efforts, giving positive feedback, and employee reviews will enhance satisfaction as this gives the employee a sense of recognition that will build motivation.

Counterproductive Employee Behavior

A counterproductive employee is one who elicits negative behaviors in the workplace.  A counterproductive employee hinders the growth of the company as they appear unmotivated or to act with malicious intent.  The inability of the Human Resource manager to appropriately deal with Joe’s hostile attitude is counterproductive to employee retention.  The inability of the housekeeping manager to maintain staff at proper levels is counterproductive to the expectations of the staff.  The dealers are counterproductive to the casino as they feel threatened and reside their loyalty and seek work with competitors.  The housekeeper’s attendance is poor which is counterproductive to the daily operations of the casino hotel.  Although the dealers and housekeepers behaviors appear counterproductive, the attitudes and lack of motivation are a direct result of a hostile and over demanding work environment.  Properly training or eliminating Joe from his position is vital to repairing employee satisfaction.  Hiring and training more housekeepers is an obvious solution to the housekeeping department.  To reduce counterproductive behaviors, the Casino must do a complete overhaul of the entire staff and develop a plan of action to bring the casino morale to a normal standard.


An organization’s success is dependent on job satisfaction and positive morale.  Implementing motivational theories increases job satisfaction and employee desire to do more.  The use of reinforcements pushes employees to go the extra mile and learn different aspects of the company that could potentially lead to promotion and increase retention.  Have a high employee retention indicates job satisfaction and loyalty that leads to a more united team.  Reducing counterproductivity increases production and leads to a more stable production rate and increases job satisfaction.


Management Study Guide. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/importance-of-employee-retention.htm

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner – Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology (6th ed.). USA: Wiley.

Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Employee Selection and Training

An enterprise cannot be founded, built, and run by a solo individual.  As the entrepreneur experiences growth within the enterprise, it is vital that the business gains great employees to help the business flourish.  Although a single individual can develop ideas and thoughts that lead to the success of the business, it is necessary for others to assist in establishing a consistent growth of the company.  Employees are a key component of a successful and profitable business.  I/O psychologists have studied and utilized a scientific approach to the recruitment, selection, and training of employees (Spector, 2012).  Although recruiting, selecting, and training staff is typical in the business world, there also lies potential ethical and legal issues that may arise (Spector, 2012).

Industrial / Organizational Psychology

The distinct focus of an I/O psychologist is human behavior within the workplace.  I/O psychologists study individual work behaviors and develop a plan of action to maximize proficiency and productivity.  The action plan should reflect a positive effect on the growth of the company as a whole, or repair any organizational and human problems in the workplace (“American Psychological Association”, 2015).  I/O psychologists analyze the business to establish the necessary core competencies needed to fill adequate positions within a company (“Siop”, 2015).  A prescreening process is developed that will evaluate potential candidates, eliminating those who do not meet the competency qualifications saving time and money for the company (“Siop”, 2015). Tests are developed to measure individual competencies that provide statistical data which is analyzed to correlate the test scores with performance (“Siop”, 2015).  I/O psychologists develop an unbiased interview process that probes into the desired competencies without boring into potential legal issues (“Siop”, 2015).  Additionally, I/O psychologists develop and conduct assessments used to identify strengths and weaknesses possessed by individuals and develop a plan of action for individual, or business opportunities (“Siop”, 2015).  The processes developed by I/O psychologists allow individuals to see a consistency among all aspects of the job and communication and training efforts (“Siop”, 2015).


I/O psychologists aim to keep a constant flow of potential employees that meet the job specifications (Spector, 2012).   Recruitment is an easy concept, however, having the right potential candidates apply for the position may prove to be difficult.  Some companies use internal recruitment to fill positions because the individual holds prior knowledge of the company standards and expectations of the necessary criteria (Spector, 2012).  To hire the best possible individual for a position, I/O psychologists may conduct a validation study that analyzes the criteria for the position and to pick predictors (Spector, 2012).  A position for a sales manager may require two years of customer service experience.  If the individual applying has the minimum experience, he or she moves to the next hurdle.  Another criterion may be a certain score on a personality assessment such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.  If the individual meets a set standard score, he or she moves on to the next hurdle.  The process continues until the best potential candidate remains.  In other instances, the I/O psychologist may use validity generalization as a means to develop the necessary criteria and predictors an individual needs to possess for a certain position (Specter, 2012).  Validity generalization means that specifications, criteria, and predictors for a job are transferable to different companies if the jobs are comparable, such as certain Human Resource positions (Specter, 2012).  Once predictors are established, The I/O psychologist should establish how best to use the predictors.  The multiple hurdles approach is a process in which predictors are graded on a scale of relevance and amount of knowledge (Specter, 2012).  As the individual meets the acceptable grade, he or she advances to the next hurdle and continues the process until the highest scored candidate is found (Specter, 2012).  As the hurdles increase, the cost of assessments increases which reflects in a lower cost recruitment process (Specter, 2012).  Another approach, the regression approach, takes scores from assessments and combines them into a mathematical equation that will predict potential performance (Specter, 2012).  For a sales manager, predictors may include turnover rate, communication skills, and generated sales plans versus actual sales obtained (Specter, 2012).  The regression approach takes all predictors into consideration allowing other areas to compensate for the next, rather than eliminating a candidate because of a low score in one area (Specter, 2012).


I/O psychologists also specialize in developing training programs geared towards increasing employee knowledge, performance, and production (Spector, 2012).    Developing a training program begins with a needs assessment in which job objectives are analyzed and compared to the level at which they are performed by the necessary job description (Spector, 2012).  The assessment allows the I/O psychologists to clarify the objectives of the training and what the outcome of the training process should produce (Spector, 2012).  For instance, a company may suffer from poor customer service complaints.  The objective would be to decrease complaints through a customer service training program.  The goal of completing the objective would be to receive a certain set score on a customer service test, and then utilizing the learned techniques when waiting on a customer (Specter 2012).  The transfer of training to on the job depends on the effectiveness and delivery of the information (Spector, 2012).  It is vital to develop the proper training plan for transfer of training to occur (Specter, 2012).  The training should include clear and concise reasons for the training, scenarios similar to those the trainee will experience, and a chance for feedback via testing and questions (Spector, 2012).  For customer service training, an individual would probably view a video, take an assessment quiz, and then practice what he or she learned on the sales floor.   The process of learning techniques should never stop.  Overlearning forces the individual to reach a point of automaticity so the task will come smoothly without thought (Spector, 2012).

Evaluating Training Programs 

Evaluation of training programs is vital to deciphering its effectiveness in the workplace (Spector, 2012).  A training program must have clearly defined criteria that can be measured through employee reactions, content learned, on the job learned behavior, or results reflected in cost of training (Spector, 2012).  The study design should be chosen according to the criteria being used to assess the effectiveness of the training (Spector, 2012).  Pretest-posttest designs assess the employee before and after training measuring the amount of information learned or the amount of changed behavior on the job (Spector, 2012).  A control group study measures the difference in knowledge between trained and untrained employees (Spector, 2012).   The types of measures are selected once the criteria are chosen (Spector, 2012).  For instance, the measure may be a written assessment, role-playing, or on the job performance evaluations (Spector, 2012).  Collecting data is necessary, but sometimes difficult (Spector, 2012).  It may be wise use subjects from different departments to receive an accurate measure of knowledge as some employees may not cooperate fully (Spector, 2012).  Through the use of inferential statistics, the data is analyzed, and the amount learned or the difference in behavior (Spector, 2012).  Essentially, evaluations should be performed at both the training and performance levels in order to learn its true effectiveness (Spector, 2012).  Results yielding little to no positive change should not be continued, and a new approach developed (Spector, 2012).  Results yielding a positive change should be implemented and altered to improve further performance as necessary (Spector, 2012).


Discrimination in the workplace became illegal in 1964 protecting individuals from the application process through attaining and retaining employment with a company (Spector, 2012).  It is illegal to refuse work or require excess training to individuals covered in the protective classes (Spector, 2012).  The four-fifths rule protects diversity from a single class in an organization (Spector, 2012).  Diversity is required unless the job specifies through testing and analysis that the job aims for a certain type of person (Spector, 2012).  Affirmative Action forces companies to hire and maintain a standard of diversity in the organization (Spector, 2012).  However, an individual hired according to affirmative action may be perceived as incompetent or have a negative self-image, both of which may hinder the individual from maximizing their potential within the company (Spector, 2012).  Training programs geared toward reducing discrimination, harassment and bullying should be available to all employees to meet the ethical guidelines of promoting diversity and harmony in the workplace (Spector, 2012).


Employees are vital to the organization’s functioning and growth.  Recruitment and retention are necessary procedures for organizations to attain employees who will have a positive effect on the business.  Proper training and development repairs and eliminates extra costs, increases production, performance and job satisfaction as the employee becomes confident in their work.  I/O psychologists analyze and generate plans to achieve positive results in recruitment and training while ensuring legal and ethical policies, and procedures are intact.


American Psychological Association. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/industrial.aspx

SIOP. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/business/selection.aspx

Spector, Paul E. (2012). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice (6th ed.).  Hoboken, NJ:  Wiley.