Uncategorized

Infancy and Early Childhood

Development begins in the womb and continues throughout the lifespan.  During each stage of development, milestones are meant causing the evolution of the individual.  Infancy and early childhood are vital periods of information absorption that leads the child to independence for later life.  There are many elements that aid in the development of an individual from the family unit and parenting styles to early education that influences cognitive development.

Family Affect

During infancy, all interaction influences the growth and development of feelings and emotions (Parent-Child, 2014).  As the child cries for their needs, the parents fulfill the desire in turn causing a bonding connection with the infant (Parent-Child, 2014).  The bond is the creates an attachment that is central to the infant’s development.  Those who identify with a secure attachment to their parents or caregiver tend to demonstrate healthy, happy, and competent relationships, not only in the family unit, but also builds the foundation for future relationships in a social setting (Parent-Child, 2014).  Additionally, a secure bond helps develop an emotional balance and ensure that disruptions of life are easier bounced back from (Segal, 2014).    Any disruption in the bonding process may have difficulty relating their emotions and feelings with others inhibiting their ability to develop healthy, loving, and positive relationships in the future (Segal, 2014).

The development of a secure attachment in an infant develops pathways in the brain that allow the infant to develop self-confidence later, deal with conflict in a positive manner ultimately resulting in a creative, optimistic, and hopeful adult (Segal, 2014).  Disruptions in the bond create an adult who has insecurities, developmental deficits, and feelings of aggression and anger, all of which hinder intimate relationships (Segal, 2014).  During infancy, development is primarily an emotional and security bond development, but as the infant enters into early childhood, that bond develops into a tool for teaching socialization.

During early childhood, the primary caretaker becomes a teacher to the child, as socialization is developed (Parent, 2014).  The responsiveness and amount of demand emphasized by the caretaker are the precursors to the child’s social development.  Responsiveness indicates warmth and acceptance allowing for open-mindedness from the parent who supports the child’s individuality, creativity, and confidence (Parent, 2014).  A demanding parent exhibits consistency in guidelines promoting a stable foundation for the child to grow from (Parent, 2014).  An unresponsive parent indicates coldness, feelings of rejection and insensitivity which supports feelings of reclusion and being unwanted (Parent, 2014).  A parent who inflicts little demand on a child supports an excess of freedom, minimal control, and tend to give in to their child’s demands offering little guidance (Parent, 2014).

During early childhood, autonomy becomes the primary desire (Parent, 2014).  During this stage, the child takes risks and challenges their parents, not necessarily misbehaving or acting out, but in an effort to start their evolution into individuality (Parent, 2014).  During this time, the parent is relied on for proper guidance and structure to provide a solid foundation from which they can grow (Parent, 2014).  The learning necessary will stem from the initial attachment developed in infancy (Parent, 2014).  The parenting style used is the precursor to the child’s development throughout life beginning in infancy.

Parenting Styles

Parenting styles tend to be precursors for the academics, socialization, and psychological well-being of the child (Darling, 1995-2014).  Parenting styles reflect the responsiveness and demand imposed on a child and represents, the values, beliefs, and behaviors of the family unit (Darling, 1995-2014).  Successful parenting requires a mutual balance of response and demand combined with consistent practices.

An authoritative parent exhibits both responsiveness and demand.  The parent sets high expectations of the child while adhering to the child’s emotional and social needs, but also imposes fair and consistent discipline when the rules are broken (Darling, 1995-2014).  They encourage independence and promote opinion and options discussions in an effort to build the independence (Daring, 1995-2014).  Additionally, authoritative parents demonstrate flexibility as the child attempts to justify decisions and will adjust the consequences accordingly if the child proves their case (Darling, 1995-2015)

An authoritarian parent exhibits demand, but little responsiveness.  The parent sets high standards of expectations with very strict rules, but responds minimally to the child’s emotional needs (Darling, 1995-2014).  Parents expect the child to obey all rules with no exceptions and imposes consistent discipline with little to no explanation.  Additionally, the child is not encouraged to discuss options or opinions, and there is little flexibility from the parent (Darling, 1995-2014).

An authoritative parent seems to be the best parenting style.  The child is encouraged through love and understanding to develop into an independent individual who is capable of making decisions and has an understanding of the consequences they may face.  The parent is nurturing, but strict solidifying the child in the foundation created for them.  Promoting a child to discusses opinion and options and justly present their case allows for the child to feel important and that they hold a meaning to life.  Discipline, a child for every action with no explanation, may hinder decision making and social skills.  A child parented in this manner will probably grow to be confident, content, and socially adept leading them to a stable, promising future.

Early Education on Cognitive Development

            Early childhood education enhances cognitive development and increases intelligence (Berger, 2011).  There are several types of early childhood education that promote behavior, creativity, individuality, independence, language skills, and social development (Berger, 2011).  There are child-centered programs aimed at teaching the child to follow self-interests in lieu of adult-directed interests.  The program promotes the child  to become independent in their  right through the promotion of creativity and pride of achievements (Berger, 2011).  Teacher-centered programs set the child up with a curriculum that teaches academics through a reward system.  Positive and negative reinforcements are used to encourage the academic learning and to promote good behavior (Berger, 2011).  Children with developmental deficits or delays can attend an intervention program, such as Head Start, which focuses on the areas in deficit.  Behavior, language, and social skills are the primary aim of an intervention education in early childhood and taught through special one on one learning, nurture and praise, and separation techniques (Berger, 2011).  Education is vital to the development of a child.  A successful education promotes a continuance of education throughout the lifespan (Berger, 2011).

Conclusion

Development begins in the womb with the physical aspect of life.  Learning begins in the womb as the fetus takes in sounds and words and the brain develops.  As an infant, building a bond and attachment sets the foundation for a relationship that will later develop into a learning tool.  Through response and demand, a parent who sets the trust and emotional well-being for the child will benefit socialization and learning throughout life.  As a child is a sponge, the parenting style utilized will allow the child to know his or her boundaries and promote healthy development that will lead to stability and further learning.  Through education, the child increases socialization and academic learning increasing cognition that will be utilized throughout life.

References:

Berger, K. S. (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span (8th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database..

Darling, N. (1995-2014). Community Counseling Services, Inc.. Retrieved from http://www.hsccs.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=1947&cn=82

Parent-Child Relationships – Infancy, Toddlerhood, Preschool, School age, Adolescence, Adults Read more: Parent-Child Relationships – Infancy, Toddlerhood, Preschool, School age, Adolescence, Adults – Experimental Group, Emotional Development, Parents, and Children – JRank Articles http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/472/Parent-Child-Relationships.html#ixzz3DRXt16kE. (2014)NetIndustries.org, (), . Retrieved from http://<a href=”http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/472/Parent-Child-Relationships.html”>Parent-Child Relationships – Infancy, Toddlerhood, Preschool, School age, Adolescence, Adults</a>

Segal, Ph. D., J., & Laffe, Ph. D., J. (2014). Attachment and Adult Relationships. HelpGuide.org, (), . Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/eqa_attachment_bond.htm

Advertisements
Standard
Uncategorized

Lifespan Perspective Theory

The point at which life  begins is a huge topic of debate.  Some believe it begins at the point of conception, when the sperm meets the egg, others believe life begins with the first breath of air taken.  Either way life span is just as it implies: The duration of existence from beginning to end.  The life span perspective claims that there is a continuity of development and change throughout an individual’s life (Berger, 2011).     There are several theoretical positions on the human life span.  Sigmund Freud took the psychoanalytical and psychosexual standpoint, and Erik Erikson focused on the psychosocial aspect of development.  Lifespan development establishes behavior patterns in individuals.  These behaviors develop through the interaction of heredity and environment, which, combined, create the uniqueness individuals possesses.

Life Span Perspective Defined

Through the use of observation and experimentation, the lifespan perspective declares human development as multi-dimensional rather than a continuous and consistent cycle (Berger, 2011).  There is not one specific theory to explain how a person develops and changes over a lifetime.  Instead, it is a combination of theories initially developed from philosophical views that have evolved into the theories used today (Berger, 2011). There are four aspects of life that play key roles in an individual’s development.

Human development is multi-directional, meaning  that developmental changes occur naturally and in all directions, not in a solid path (Berger, 2011).  Development is embraced as a continuity of change that produces gains or losses which will prove to enhance future change (Berger, 2011).  It is multi-contextual proving adaptations from the physical and social environments an individual is subjected to throughout their lifespan (Berger, 2011).  Socioeconomic status, family patterns and historical conditions are a few of the contexts that cause human adaptation throughout the life span(Berger, 2011).  Human development is multi-cultural and embraces that the world is diverse and contains numerous cultures which also are a part of an individual’s development (Berger, 2011). A culture does not contain a certain race or ethnicity, but rather a group of individuals who share a set of commonalities among themselves (Berger, 2011). There can be several cultures within one community.

Additionally, human development is multidisciplinary.  There are so many aspects of life that affect human develop; it is necessary to use several disciplines of science for a full and thorough understanding of human development (Berger, 2011).  Studies of human development occur through social, cognitive and biological factors researched at specific age and developmental milestone periods (Berger, 2011).  It is important to keep the life span segmented.  Each segment affects another and can be combined accurately to tell the story of human development over the entire life span (Berger, 2011).

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud is notorious for his development of controversial theories.  His psychoanalytic theory of human development took a sexual standpoint by declaring the division of life into stages, and each stage of life was centered on a body part affirmed with pleasure and sex (McLeod, 2008).  Additionally, Freud thought that in each stage, sexually driven conflict arises and resolves before successfully moving on to the next stage of development.  These conflicts aid in the development of the ego and superego in order for successful development of self-control and the ability to properly conduct sexual gratification into the right area (McLeod, 2008).

He theorized that infancy is the oral stage in which a baby obtains satisfaction by putting various objects in the mouth to obtain pleasure thus developing and ego (McLeod, 2008).  In early childhood, the child is aware that they are individuals separate from others. The anal stage describes the time in which the child finds pleasure in defecation leading to a conflict of potty training (McLeod, 2008).  Early childhood is the phallic stage in which the child is aware of anatomical differences of sexes.  The child becomes fixated on sexual pleasure through masturbation as a way of dealing with the conflict of eroticism on all levels (McLeod, 2008).  During the latency stage psychosexual development lays dormant as the child is developing social and cognitive skills (McLeod, 2008).  Freud’s theory identified the final stage of development as the genital stage in which the individual begins sexual experimentation and deals with the unresolved conflicts of the previous stages (McLeod, 2008).

Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson adopted Freud’s theory that human development occurred at different stages; however, he elaborated that the development took place throughout the entire lifespan.  He also adopted Freud’s conflict theories, but rather than focusing on identification and the superego; Erikson believed the conflicts arose from culture and society and took place within the ego (McLeod, 2008).  Erikson took the view that human development was psychosocial and focused on the cultural and societal roles of development (McLeod, 2008).

Erikson theorized there are eight stages of development, beginning with trust, autonomy, and guilt in the earliest years that developed hope, will, and purpose in a child.  During adolescence, the stages of inferiority and identity developed confidence and fidelity in an individual (McLeod, 2008).  In the adult years, the stages of intimacy, stagnation, and integrity developed the virtues of love, care and wisdom (McLeod, 2008).  During each of these stages, Erikson believed that a conflict arise between the psychological needs of the  individual and the societal needs of acceptance.  If the conflicts do not successfully resolve, the potential of later development being hindered is possible, but does can resolve itself in other stages of later development (McLeod, 2008).

Heredity and Environment

The notorious nature versus nurture debate greatly impacts human develop.  Nature, or heredity is responsible for the physical aspect of development, as well as certain behavioral traits found in the genes, passed down for unaccountable generations ((Berger, 2011). Genes contain the predispositions of an individual that cannot be influenced by the environment,  making them set in stone ((Berger, 2011).  Nurture are the outside influences of environment, society, culture, and physical forces that affect the development of an individual (Berger, 2011).  The first five years of life are the most critical for development.  The individual is exploring through the five senses to create infinite cognitive representations in the brain for use throughout all aspects of development (Berger, 2011). The amount or extent of human development from nature and nurture indeterminable, however both are the primary causes of human development (Berger, 2011).

Conclusion

Human development has intrigued researchers since the beginning of time when philosophers were inferring how mankind evolves.  Over time, it has been noted that human development occurs through stages throughout the span of life and the same development patterns are consistent in the majority of individuals (McLeod, 2008).  Theorists such as Freud and Erikson have agreed that development occurs through the resolution of inner conflict that allow development to continue throughout life (McLeod, 2008).  There are many aspects of life that assist in human development; however, the most fundamental are nature and nurture which deviate the direction an individual will take in life.

References

Berger, K. S. (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span (8th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database..

McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html

McLeod, S. A. (2008). Psychosexual Stages. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychosexual.html

Standard
Uncategorized

Memory Processing

What is primary memory?  What are the characteristics of primary memory?

 Primary memory refers to short term memory (STM).  This is where information is stored temporarily until it has been decided to retain or forget the information.  Basically, we hold information that we need in the moment and “forget” it.  Information that is to be retained gets transferred to secondary, or long-term memory where it is stored for an infinite amount of time.  Some distinguishing characteristics include the amount of information that can be held here, which is typically seven items, plus or minus two (5-9 items) and the ways in which information is processed for storage (coding).  Additionally, primary memory is known for the ways in which information is retained, forgotten and retrieved.

 

 What is the process of memory from perception to retrieval?  What happens when the process is compromised?

 The process of memory begins with perception.  This is information taken in from the environment.  At the point of perception, information is taken in and stored in the sensory memory for a short period of time until we take the information we actually need and send it to the primary memory.  The primary memory sorts through, manipulates and codes the information into secondary memory because it brings on an emotional response or relates the information with previously stored memories.  Secondary memory stores the information for an unlimited amount of time in order for the retrieval process to occurr.  The process of retrieval is when a memory must be transferred from the secondary memory to the primary memory in order for a recall of information to take place. If the process is compromised the individual may experience false memories of the event that took place.  The individual may also experience a mixture of memories that may lead the individual to doubt their memory or experience all together.  The individual may also experience the inability to recall information that was stored.

 

 Is it possible for memory retrieval to be unreliable?  Why or why not?  What factors may affect the reliability of one’s memory?

 Yes it is possible for memory retrieval to be unreliable.  Many factors come in to play with the retrieval process.  A memory gets stored, but over time, an individual matures, meaning their ideals and beliefs change.  Therefore, when retrieving a memory a peroid of time later, the individual may experience a distortion in the actual memory.  Another factor leading to distortions would be how a question is asked.  For instance, if you ask a question, the individual replies.  If you ask the same question, but with different wording, the response may be different.  In order for a memory to be easily and readily accessible, the individual needs to review the information, as with classwork.  If proper review does not take place, the memory remains incomplete which in turn causes unreliable retrieval or the tip of the tongue phenomena.

 

 

Reference: 

Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology: In and Out of the Laboratory, (5th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database..

Standard
Uncategorized

Attention

How do you define the concept of attention?

 The concept of attention can be defined as the mind taking possession of our thoughts or actions causing the use of mental effort or concentration on a task or object.  The amount of attention needed depends on the situations complexity and the amount of experience an individual has with the situation.  The use of mental energy is needed to “pay attention”, but energy is limited and needs to be devoted to the situation at hand, meaning the more complex the situation, the more energy is used.  Additionally, the less experience and more complex the situation, more energy is required  (Golatti, 2014).

Can attention be consciously allocated to tasks?  Why or why not?

 Although the majority of attention allocation occurs at the unconscious level, it can occur at the conscious level as well.  For instance, when a person initially learns to drive a car, they consciously allocate their attention to pushing the right pedal and steering.  Over time, the processes of the behavior become a habit and the attention is automatically allocated at the unconscious level.  When a person is multi-tasking, it is largely due to the conscious level of attention allocation as well.  Therefore in the initial exposure of a task or object, attention is allocated purposely, or at the conscious level, but over time, the mind automatically allocates where attention is to be applied at the unconscious level (Golatti, 2014).

What is the relationship between attention and cognition?

 Attention and cognition are interrelated meaning that work together to perform tasks.  Attention is the ability to concentrate while shutting out distractions that may interfere with the task at hand.  Cognition is the thought processes of the brain involved in the learning process.  When an individual attempts to concentrate, or apply attention to a certain task, cognition is required to kick on in order for the information to be processed, learned and stored for future use.  Since they are interralated, when attention is limited, cognition is also limited.  However, it is also possible to manipulate the relationship to cause improvements.  Manipulation techninques can be used to increase concentration whhich increases the attention span causing an improvement in cognition, or the ability to learn new information (Golatti, 2014).

 Reference:

Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology: In and Out of the Laboratory, (5th ed.).  Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database

Standard
Uncategorized

Concept of Attention

How do you define the concept of attention?

 The concept of attention can be defined as the mind taking possession of our thoughts or actions causing the use of mental effort or concentration on a task or object.  The amount of attention needed depends on the situations complexity and the amount of experience an individual has with the situation.  The use of mental energy is needed to “pay attention”, but energy is limited and needs to be devoted to the situation at hand, meaning the more complex the situation, the more energy is used.  Additionally, the less experience and more complex the situation, more energy is required  (Golatti, 2014).

 

Can attention be consciously allocated to tasks?  Why or why not?

 Although the majority of attention allocation occurs at the unconscious level, it can occur at the conscious level as well.  For instance, when a person initially learns to drive a car, they consciously allocate their attention to pushing the right pedal and steering.  Over time, the processes of the behavior become a habit and the attention is automatically allocated at the unconscious level.  When a person is multi-tasking, it is largely due to the conscious level of attention allocation as well.  Therefore in the initial exposure of a task or object, attention is allocated purposely, or at the conscious level, but over time, the mind automatically allocates where attention is to be applied at the unconscious level (Golatti, 2014).

 

What is the relationship between attention and cognition?

 Attention and cognition are interrelated meaning that work together to perform tasks.  Attention is the ability to concentrate while shutting out distractions that may interfere with the task at hand.  Cognition is the thought processes of the brain involved in the learning process.  When an individual attempts to concentrate, or apply attention to a certain task, cognition is required to kick on in order for the information to be processed, learned and stored for future use.  Since they are interralated, when attention is limited, cognition is also limited.  However, it is also possible to manipulate the relationship to cause improvements.  Manipulation techninques can be used to increase concentration whhich increases the attention span causing an improvement in cognition, or the ability to learn new information (Golatti, 2014).

 

 Reference:

 

Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology: In and Out of the Laboratory, (5th ed.).  Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database

Standard
Uncategorized

Defining and Explaining Attention

How do you define the concept of attention?

 The concept of attention can be defined as the mind taking possession of our thoughts or actions causing the use of mental effort or concentration on a task or object.  The amount of attention needed depends on the situations complexity and the amount of experience an individual has with the situation.  The use of mental energy is needed to “pay attention”, but energy is limited and needs to be devoted to the situation at hand, meaning the more complex the situation, the more energy is used.  Additionally, the less experience and more complex the situation, more energy is required  (Golatti, 2014).

 

Can attention be consciously allocated to tasks?  Why or why not?

 Although the majority of attention allocation occurs at the unconscious level, it can occur at the conscious level as well.  For instance, when a person initially learns to drive a car, they consciously allocate their attention to pushing the right pedal and steering.  Over time, the processes of the behavior become a habit and the attention is automatically allocated at the unconscious level.  When a person is multi-tasking, it is largely due to the conscious level of attention allocation as well.  Therefore in the initial exposure of a task or object, attention is allocated purposely, or at the conscious level, but over time, the mind automatically allocates where attention is to be applied at the unconscious level (Golatti, 2014).

 

What is the relationship between attention and cognition?

 Attention and cognition are interrelated meaning that work together to perform tasks.  Attention is the ability to concentrate while shutting out distractions that may interfere with the task at hand.  Cognition is the thought processes of the brain involved in the learning process.  When an individual attempts to concentrate, or apply attention to a certain task, cognition is required to kick on in order for the information to be processed, learned and stored for future use.  Since they are interralated, when attention is limited, cognition is also limited.  However, it is also possible to manipulate the relationship to cause improvements.  Manipulation techninques can be used to increase concentration whhich increases the attention span causing an improvement in cognition, or the ability to learn new information (Golatti, 2014).

 

 Reference:

 

Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology: In and Out of the Laboratory, (5th ed.).  Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database

Standard
Uncategorized

Perception and Attention

Perception is the manner in which the brain translates an experience or object (Galotti, 2014).  When faced with the dilemma of time restraints, an individual may base a decision on their perception of all the possible outcomes.  In the scenario of returning to school, prioritizing is essential to success in education and personal life.  When developing a schedule one must adhere to in order to be successful, he or she may think of all the successes or conflicts that might arise during the schedule times.  These thoughts will ultimately impact the decision of the route of the schedule developed (Galotti, 2014).  In the scenario a piano recital conflicting with a work schedule, the individual took into consideration the possibility of postponing homework and weighed out the results of the potentially low grade.  The individual also thought to call in sick to, but rejected out because the perception of this choice was a negative consequence.  Ultimately, the individual perceived getting up early to complete schoolwork was the best route to take because all goals would be complete.  In each of these examples, the individuals focused on the major and minor details of the scenarios and possible outcomes.  When making a decision, it is possible for an individual to see a possible outcome as the best choice because of illusionary correlations.  In this case, the individual sees an outcome as valid because they have had an experience that created an association with the needed decision.  The illusion of a positive outcome occurs, but in actuality, the association does not exist and the outcome will ultimately be negative (Galotti, 2014).  In the instance of neglecting even a tiny aspect their perceptions, the individuals may have had an entirely different outcome than anticipated.  In the process of making their decisions, the individuals considered all relevant goals as well as possible outcomes.  It is vital to pay close attention to who may be affected, how all people involved will be affected,  and if the decision will cause other decisions to be made (Galotti, 2014).  For instance, If a parent returns to school, he or she needs to consider the affect their decision may have on their family such as less time spent together, the possibility of missing important events, or even having to eat on the run more often.  They would then have to think if the decision will have a more positive or negative effect.  Researchers have found that individuals tend to care more about any loss they may experience rather than the gain (Galotti, 2014).  In the scenario of the piano recital, the individual must be sure they are not making a decision out of confidence.  When individuals make a decision, confidence in the outcome is necessary, however, if the individual becomes over-confident, the possibility of being blinded of important details exists (Galotti,2014), which may cause a chain reaction of inaccurate results ultimately changing the expected outcome.

Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology: In and Out of the Laboratory, (5th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database

Standard